Structure and property

Family: diamond
Chemical composition: C, carbon
Hardness: 10 Mohs’ scale, 56-115 Knoop hardness number (GPa), 10,000 Brooks identer scale.
Crystallography: Isometric. Crystals sometimes sharp octahedral, rhombic dodecahedral, cubes, twinning, plates, and combinations with other forms. Crystals modified often rounded and distinguished by the presents of triangular shaped pits on the faces of the octahedral shaped crystals. These trigons were once thought to be the result of etching are now believed to be part of the growth process.
Luster: Adamantine (diamond provides the definition for this kind of luster).
Cleavage: Excellent, parallel to octahedron face, four directions.
Density: 3.51 g/cm3, or specific gravity = 3.51 (3.51 at 3.53).
Refractive Index: 2.4175 in the yellow light of a sodium lamp. (2.417 at 2.419)
Birefringence: none
Pleochroism: none
Dispersion: Large (0.044), leading to rainbow colors on refraction.
Optics: Isotropic. Index very constant. N = 2.417.
Thermal Conductivity: Superb. 5-25 Watts/centimeter-degreesC (at 300 K). 4 times greater than copper, an excellent thermal conductor.
Electrical Conductivity: 0 to ~ 100 ohm-cm (resistivity at 300 K), an insulator.
Optical Transmission: Transparent over broad spectrum of the electromagnetic spectrum. An excellent material for optical windows.
Colors : Colorless Blue Green Yellow Pink Red Orange Brown Black

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